Angeleri, F., F. Ferro Milone and S. Parigi: Electrical activity and reactivity of the rhynencephalic, pararhynencephalic and thalamic structure: prolonged implantation of electrodes in man, EEG Clin. Neurophysiology, 16: 100-129,1964. “…gli AA.presentano il primo risultato, in Italia, di registrazione e stimolazione di strutture profonde dell’encefalo umano in una prospettiva di terapia chirurgica con metodo stereotassico, di alcune forme di epilessia del lobo temporale…”

Babiloni C., F.Babiloni, F.Carducci et Al.: Human cortical EEG rhythms during long term episodic memory task. A high-resolution EEG study of the HERA model. Neuroimage, 21:1576-84, 2004. “…high resolution study of brain rhythmicity during visual episodic memory recognition task…the strict relation between gamma response and perception suggest that retrieval processes of long term memory deeply impinged upon sensory representation of the stored material…”

Baddeley, A.: Working Memory, Oxford Psychology Series, n°11, Oxford Clarendon Press, 1986. “…working memory differs from short term memory (STM) in that it assumes both the storage and manipulation of information, and in the emphasis on its functional role in complex cognition…”.

Balduzzo,M., F. Ferro Milone, T.A. Minelli, I. Pittaro Cadore and L. Turicchia: Mathematical phenomenology of neural synchronization by periodic fields, Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology and Life Sciences 7, 115-137 ,2003. “…Neuron synchronization has been hypothesized as the basic mechanism leading neurological phenomena like low electroencephalographic rhythm dimension and high coherence….cognitive processes such as associative memory can also b explained in term of neuron synchronization…”

Baggio C., T. Cenacchi , G. Bolcioni, R. Zanini, G. D’Andrea, A. R. Cananzi, and F. Ferro Milone: Power, coherence and phase in the EEGs of normal elderly subjects: early signs of changes in high resolution pattern in the alpha band.: EEG Clin. Neurophysiol., 82: 38P, 1992. “…the high sampling rate and digital resolution of present EEG records allow more accurate resolution in spectral analysis and the application of more appropriate methods based on nolinear dynamics and fractal geometry requiring large data sets…”

Battiston, L., F. Ferro Milone, C. Gabrieli, T. A. Minelli, V. Nofrate, A. Pascolini: Non-Linear Analysis of EEG Signals, Nonlinear Dynamics, SIF Conference Proceedings Vol.48, M. Costato, A. Degasperis e M. Milani eds. p.127 (SIF Bologna,1995). “…we present preliminary results from wavelet analysis as a different point of view on data analysis which is able to improve locally in both space and time the classical Fourier analysis…”

Basar, E.: The theory of the whole-brain work. Int.J.Psychophysio., 6’:133-1348, 2006. “…memory is a constant work in progress. the report introduce a new model on memory basing on the processes of EEG oscillations and brain dynamics…the expression of dynamic memory is used for memory processes that evoke relevant changes in alpha, gamma, theta and delta activities…the new analysis to recognize faces emphasizes the importance of EEG oscillations in neurophysiology and Gestalt analysis…”

Bernardi N., T. Pizzorusso, G. M. Ratto, and L. Maffei : Molecular basis of plasticity in the visual cortex. Trends in Neurosci., 26 (2003) 369-378. (see Caleo).

Borella E., B. Carretti, R. De Beni: Working memory and inhibition across the adult life-span. Acta Psicologica, 128 (2008) 33-44. (see De Beni)

Caleo M. ,Maffei, L.: Neurotrophins and plasticity in the visual cortex. Neuroscientist, 8:52-61, 2002. “…the visual cortex is one of the favourite models for the study of experience-dependent changes in neuronal structure and function…neurotrophic factors of the NGF family (neurotrophins) play a pivotal role in the visual cortical plasticity…are present in the cortex during the critical period for synaptic transmission…neurotrophins modulates synaptic transmission and patterns of neuronal connectivity in the cortex…”

Danysz W., C.G.Parsons, H.J. Mobius, A.Stoffler, and G.Quack: Neuroprotective and symptomatological action of Memantine Relevant fo Alzheimer’s disease. A Unified Glutamatergic Hypothesis on the Mechanism of Action. Neurotoxicity research,2:85-97,1999. “…in the case of low magnesium condition impaired LTP was restored in the presence of relevant concentration of Memantine….”

De Beni R., P. Palladino, F. Pazzaglia, and C. Cornoldi: Increase in Intrusion Errors and Working Memory Deficit of Poor Comprehenders. Quarterly J. Exper. Pshychol., 51A (1998) 305-320. “…the poor comprehenders obtained a significantly lower performance in the memory tasks an made a higher number of intrusion errors particularly in animal words…”

Ferro Milone F., T. A. Minelli and L. Turicchia: Neuron Synchronization and Human EEG Phenomenology Simulation, Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology and Life Sciences 2 , 21-33 (1998) “…the nonlinear dynamics underlying the EEG time series is expected to be explained in term of competition between coherent electric oscillations resulting from synchronized neurons and desynchronizing sensor stimuli…a simplest model i.e. an effective neuron…producing synchronization is based on a system of oscillators with impulsive coupling…successful for its simplicity and calculus efficiency…”

Ferro Milone F., V. Nofrate, A. Porro: Enduring intermittent photic stimulation enhances dynamic activity of the EEG and memory processes. Rivista Ital. Neurobiol., (4), 209-218, (2004). “…spectral analysis in AD patients shows a non-significative difference between photo-stimulated and non photo-stimulated EEG at the initial stage, but significative between the last stage and more significative between the initial and final stage of stimulation (ANOVA p<0,01)… Rivermead test application (double form) shows significative improvement of the behavioural memory between initial and final stage (6 month SLI)(ANOVA p<0,01)…”

Ferro Milone F., F. Aporti, T. A. Minelli, V. Nofrate, A. Porro and A. Leon Cananzi: EEG patterns in Alzheimer’s disease: intermittent photic stimulation and sampling rate. European Journ. of Neurology 10 (Suppl.1), 92-93 (2003). “…we observed that high sampling rate (4096 Hz) was of major utility in detection of early EEG-PDR (Photic Derived Responses) changes, resulting from alteration in the synchronization in the thalamus-cortex axis….moreover nonlinear analysis (embedding, correlation dimension, fractal dimension) AD patients show higher dimension at 4096 Hz than control subjects and vice versa at 128 Hz (presence of noise?)…”
Ferro Milone F., A. Leon Cananzi, T. A. Minelli, V. Nofrate and D. Pascoli: Contribution to debate on linear and nonlinear analysis of the electroencephalogram. Chaos & Complexity Letters 1 (part 2) (2004), pp. 19 “…an approach to brain complexity in term of synchronization has been attempted via nonlinear dynamics methods and an effective reduction to simple models has been suggested…”

Ferro Milone F., T. Minelli, A. Porro, F. Binda: EEG alpha rhythm and behavioural memory test (Rivermead): a study of a possibile interdependence in controls and subjects affected by mild cognitive impairment. Psicogeriatria, Il: 39-65,2009. “…20-40 min. every day Intermittent Light (LED 650 nm) Stimulation in the range of the peak frequency of the alpha rhythm improves behavioural memory performances in aged subjects whose show EEG deterioration and memory failure…” (ANOVA p<0,001)

Ferro Milone F., T. Minelli, F. Binda: Alpha rhythms and memory processes: an intriguing question Chaos and Complexity Letters, Vol.4, pag.3, 2008. “…we hypothesize that the improvement of memory in aged subjects, treated with prolonged Intermittent Light Stimulation by LED 650 nm, in the range of the alpha rhythms, may be due to enhancement of the alpha rhythms which plays an increased role in the inhibitory control of timing of cortical processing, not directly involved in the retrieval, and therefore protect retrieval against intrusion errors, during working memory tasks. This finding may be ascribed to the enhancement of synaptic efficacy and plasticity of neurons involved in the alpha frequency range (RE and cortex)…”

Ferro Milone F., T.A.Minelli, and L.Turicchia: Nonlinear analysis of the EEG time series “…an approach to brain complexity in term of synchronization has been attempted via nonlinear dynamical methods and the effective reduction to simple models has been suggested….also preliminary experiments by Grassberber-Procaccia algorithm confirm the expectation of low dimensionality for large cluster of synchronized neurons…”

Freeman W.J. : How Brains make up their mind. (Come pensa il cervello: La dinamica dei neuroni e delle popolazioni di neuroni). G. Einaudi Ed.: Torino, 2000, pp.48-80.

Gabrieli C., F. Ferro Milone, G. Ferro Milone, T.A. Minelli, L. Turicchia: From the mathematical anatomy to the mathematical physiology of brain co-operative phenomena. Proc. Intern. Conf. Caos & Fractal Models, Pavia October,1996 , Italian University Press, 1998 “…the rhythm generation has been simulated, by modelling the physiological mechanisms producing the EEG signal, as the final output of the post-synaptic firing, with a global phe-nomenological black box filter associating a typical polyphasic response, with each postsynaptic impulse, generated by a single integrate-and-fire neuron….the model highlight the integrate-and-fire synchronization mechanism and give support to the explanation of the low dimension of brain activity…”

Gazzeley A., J.A.Cooney, J.Rissman, & M.D’Esoisito: Top-down suppression deficit underlies working memory impairment in normal aging. Nature Neurosci., 8:1298-1300, 2005. “…top-down modulation is a cognitive control mechanism…using fMRI study we show that healthy older adults, demonstrated e prominent deficit in the suppression of the cortical activity associated with task irrelevant representation, and this suppression specific attention deficit ,correlates with impaired working memory performance…”

Grey Walter W., V.J.Dovey and A.Shipton: Analysis of the electrical response of the human cortex to the photic stimulation. Nature, 158:540-541,1946. “…flicker rates at 7-14, like the resting alpha rhythm, produces…”resonant” frequencies…in subject with pronounced resonance response the self is able to recognize the resonant condition by a subjective change in sensation…”

Kandel E.:R.: In Search to Memory. The Emergence of a New Science of Mind. Norton & Co Inc., New York, (Codice Ed., Torino, 2007). “…information is encoded in the changing strength of synaptic connection between neurons…there are several mechanistic distinctions between different form of memory and synaptic plasticity…protein synthesis-dependent (activation of transcription and translation), late phase of LTP, is typically induced by repeated high frequency stimulation…this form of L-LTP is reduced in the aged animal and is positively correlated with age-related memory loss…paired pulse stimulation induces an enduring and protein synthesis dependent LTP…that is dependent on NMDA receptors activation, and requires voltage-dependent calcium channels, and is modulated by dopamine DI/D5 receptors…these results indicate that different pattern of synaptic stimulation can induce distinct forms of LTP that may have different roles in memory storage…”

Klimesch, W.: EEG-alpha rhythms and memory processes. Intern. J. Psychophysiol., 26 (1997) ”…the calculation of changes in band power indicate further that the upper alpha band is particularly sensitivwe to semantic memory demands….the lower alpha band seems to reflect attentional processes…these findings are discussed on the basis of an hypothesis, which assumes that EEG frequences within the alpha band, stem at least in part from the thalamus, and that the activity of the thalamo-cortical networks reflects processes that are related to searching, accessing and retrieving information from semantic long term memory…”

Klimesch W., P. Sauseng, S. Hanslmayr: EEG alpha oscillations: The inhibition-timing hypothesis. Brain Research Reviews, 53 (2007) 63-88. “…by the very nature of the oscillation, rhythmic amplitude changes reflect rhythmic changes in excitation of population of neurons….thus the time and direction of a change- described by phase-reset is functionally related to the timing of neuronal activation processes…the general conclusion is that the alpha ERS plays an active role for the inhibitory control and timing of cortical processing whereas ERD reflects the gradual release of inhibition associated with the emergence of complex spreading activation processes… …we assume that alpha ERS (Event Related Synchronization) reflect top-down inhibitory control processes…rhythmic amplitude changes (oscillations) reflect rhythmic changes in excitation of population of neurons…phase reset is a powerful mechanism for the event related timing of cortical processes…”

Lopes Da Silva F., and G. Pfurtsceller: Basic concepts on EEG synchronization and desynchronization. Handbook of Electronencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. Vol.6: G.Pfurtscheller & F:H:LLopes Da Silva (Ed), Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999. “…superficial pyramidal cells (called „chattering cells“) can generate 20-70 Hz repetitive burst firing and exhibit membrane oscillations at this frequency when they are stimulated with visual stimuli….such cells may be responsible for the synchronous oscillations in the beta/gamma range….”

Miltner W.H., C.Braun, M.Aenold, H.Wittel & E.Taubs: Coherence of gamma nabd EEG activity as a basis for associative learning. Letters to Nature,397:434-436,1999. “…Hebb suggest that information processing is accomplished by the formation of assemblies of cells whose synaptic linkages are strengthened, whenever the cells are activated or “ignited” synchronously…in the last decade was shown that gamma band coherence is involved in an associative learning procedure in humans…”

Pijnenburg,Y.A.L., Y.vd Made, A.M. vasn Capellen van Walsum, D.L.Knol, Ph.Schelten, C.J.Stam: EEG synchronization likelihood in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease during a workin memory task. Clin. Neurophysiol., 115: 1332-1339, 2004. “…during the working memory task the synchronization likelihood was significantly higher in MCI compared to the control subjects in the lowest band 8-10 Hz…”

Schroder, J., M.S.Buchsbaum, L.Shihabuddin, et Al..: Pattern of cortical activity and memory performance in Alzheimer’s disease. Biol.Physhciatry,49:426-436,2001. “…finding suggest that Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by altered patterns of cortical activity, rather than deficit in a single location, and emphasize the importance of right temporo-prefrontal circuitry for understanding memory deficits.”

Shaw, J.C.: The Brain’s Alpha Rhythms and the Mind. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2003.

Selkoe, D.J.: Alzheimer’s disease is a synaptic failure. Science 298:798-791, 2002. “…in its earliest clinical phase AD characteristically produces a remarkably pure impairment of memory. Mounting evidence suggests that this syndrome begins with subtle alteration in hyppocampal synaptic efficacy prior to frank neuronal degeneration, and that synaptic disfunction is caused by diffusible oligomeric assemblies of the amyloid beta protein…”

Singer W.: Synchronous oscillations and memory formation. Elsevier, 2008. “…we may conclude that synchronized oscillatory activity is a necessary prerequisite for the induction of memory-related synaptic gain changes. In this context oscillations and the associate synchronization of spikes discharges (Spikes Timing Dependent Plasticity) play a crucial role in the coordination of distributed neuronal processing and the correlate engram formation… there it is growing evidence that cognitive deficits, including impairment in short- and long-term memory, such as occurs in schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, and epilepsy, are associated with abnormal pattern of neuronal oscillations and related synchronization….”

Stam C.J., T.Montez, B.F.Jones, S.A.Rombouts, et Al.: Disturbed fluctuation of resting state EEG symchronization in Alzheimer ‘s disease. Clin.Neurophysio., 116:78-715,2005. “…synchronous oscillations can be considered a major candidate mechanism for integrating the activity of multiple brain regions…the lower alpha band is hypothesized to reflect attention process…whereas the upper alpha band may reflect long term semantic memory…”

Steriade M: Coherent oscillations and short-therm plasticity in cortico-thalamic network. TINS, 22 (1999) 337-345.

Steriade M.: Grouping of Brain Rhythms in Corticothalamic systems. Neuroscience 137 (2006) 1087-1106.

Tiraboschi P.L., A-Hansen, M. Alford, E. Masliah, L. J.Thal, and J. Corey-Bloom: The decline in the synapses and cholinergic activity is asynchronous in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 55 (2000) 1278-1283.

Ward L.M.: Synchronous neural oscillations and cognitive processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (2003), 553-559. “…The research supports the idea that the neural oscillations revealed by the EEG and MEG are closely related to dynamic processes of cognition….and that fundamental cognitive processes arise from the synchronous activity of neurons in the brain….moreover specific oscillations can be identified with particular cognitive processes: theta and gamma rhythms with memory encoding and retrieval, alpha and gamma with attentional suppression and focusing, and global synchronization at the gamma frequency with consciousness…”

Williams J.H.: Frequency specific effects of flicker on recognition memory. Neurosci. Letters, 104 (2001) 283-286. “…brain stimulation or peptides that alter electroencephalographic rhythms can modulate behaviour and enhance memory….by providing long-term potentiation, the neural basis of memory…”

Williams J., D. Ramaswamy, and A. Oulhaj: 10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people. BMC Neuroscience 7 (2006) 21-28. “…our study indicates that alpha-like EEG activity may subserve memory processes. Flicker may be able to help memory problem in older people…”

Wilson B.J., Cockburn, A.Baddeley: The Rivermead Behavioural Memory est Manual., Reading Thames Valley Test Co., Ed.OS, Firenze, 1990.

Woertz M., G.Pfurtscheller, W.Klimesch: Alpha power dependent light stimulation: dynamics of event-related (de)synchronization in human electroencephalogram. Cognitive Brain Research, 20:256-260, 2004. “…in accordance with the alpha power in the 7-13 Hz band, short red light flashes of 10 ms duration were presented at intervals of at least 2 sec…this stimulation resulted in an event-related desynchronization (ERD) followed by resynchronization…”